2005.12.31. Solar Car Archaeology Research Institute
Chronology / Development of the Solar Cells and the Early Solar Cars
YEAR PLACE EVENT DETAILS REF.
1839 French Photovoltaic Effect Edmund Becquerel, a young physicist, discovered the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with an electrolytic cell made up of two metal electrodes.  Compt. Rend. 9, 561 (1839)
1876 UK Photovoltaic Effect in Solid Selenium Adams and Day observed the photovoltaic effect in solid selenium.  Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 25, 113 (1876) 
1883 USA Selenium Photo Cells Charles Fritts, an American inventor, described the first solar cells made from selenium wafers.  Amer. J. Sci. 26, 465 (1883)
1914-1918 Wolrd The First World War @
1918 Poland Single Crystal Silicon Polish scientist Czochralski developed a way to grow single-crystal silicon.  http://www.geocities.com/semnews/milestones.html
1939-1945 World The Second World War @
1947-1952 USA p-n Junction Transistor@ AT&T, Bell Laboratories, basic theory, proof experiments, and patent applications, for the transistor with pn junction. http://www.mirai.tut.ac.jp/flabo/repo5/frepo/030521.pdf
1954 USA Silicon Solar Cells USA AT&T Bell Labs researchers D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller and  G. L. Pearson reported their discovery of 4.5% efficient silicon solar cells. The efficient was raised to 6% only a few months later.  Bell Labs, U.S.A. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 676 (1954) 
1955 USA Commercial Products
Western Electric began to sell commercial licenses for silicon PV technologies http://www.pvresources.com/en/history.php
USA Hoffman Electronics's Semiconductor Division announced a commercial PV product at 2% efficiency; priced at $25/cell and at 14 mW each http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsolar2.htm
USA The First Solar Car
(vol.1)
The first solar car was publicly demonstrated. It was a 15-inch mobile made by William G. Cobb of the General Motors Corporation with 12 selenium photoelectric cells. http://www.todayinsci.com/cgi-bin/indexpage.pl?http://www.todayinsci.com/8/8_31.htm
http://timelines.ws/20thcent/1955.HTML
1957 USA US Patent "Solar Energy Converting Apparatus," patent US2780765 was issued to Chapin, Fuller, and Pearson, AT&T.  USP2780765
USA 8% Efficient Cells Hoffman Electronics achieved 8% efficient cells. @
USA Vanguard I The first space satellite "Vanguard I" equipped with solar cells was launched. However, the rocket that put it exploded immediately after the launch.  http://ncst-www.nrl.navy.mil/NCSTOrigin/Vanguard.html
1958 USA Explorer 1 The United States succeeded in the launch of Explorer 1. The satellite operated with the solar cell for 112 days.  http://www.californiasciencecenter.org/Exhibits/AirAndSpace/MissionToThePlanets/Explorer1/Explorer1.php
1959 Japan Sharp Corp. Sharp Corporation started the solar cell research.  http://sharp-world.com/corporate/info/his/h_company/1963/index.html
1960 USA 14% Efficient Cells. Hoffman Electronics achieved 14% efficient PV cells. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsolar2.htm
1962 USA The First Solar Car
(vol.2)
The International Rectifier Company unveiled a solar energy-powered Baker electric (1912 vintage) car. The Vehicle was outfitted with a roof deck composed of 10,640 individual solar cells.  http://www-cchs.ccsd.k12.wy.us/cchs_web/jiliff/Decades/cars/cars.html
1963 Japan Japanese Solar Cells Production Sharp Corporation succeeded in producing practical silicon solar cells.  http://www.sharp.co.jp/sunvista/about/history.html
1964 USA Nimbus The Nimbus (earth observing satellite) was launched with a 470 watt solar cells. It stopped operating by the solar cell damage in one month.  http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsolar2.htm
1965 USA Crystal Silicon Ribbons Tyco Labs developed the edge-defined, film-fed growth (EFG) process, first to grow crystal sapphire ribbons and then silicon.  http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsolar2.htm
1966 USA OAO-1 In 8. Apr. 1966, OAO-1: The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory was launched with  1 kW solar cells. The missions were observation of ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma ray emission. It stopped two days later due to the breakdown of the power system.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orbiting_Astronomical_Observatory
Japan Lighthouse with Solar Panels In Japan, a 242 watt Sharp solar panels were installed on a lighthouse on Ogami Island Nagasaki Pref. It was the world's largest array at that time.  http://www.sharp.co.jp/sunvista/about/history.html
1973 World The First Oil Crisis The fourth Middle East war broke out on October 6, 1973. The crude oil price rised greatly.The economy of Japan and the industry that had depended on crude oil from Arab were faced to a big crisis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_energy_crisis
1974 USA 1 inch Wide Silicon Ribbon Tyco Labs grew the first EFG, 1-inch-wide ribbon by an endless-belt process.  http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsolar2.htm
Japan Sunshine Program Japan Ministry of International Trade and Industry Agency of Industrial
Science and Technology. The Sunshine program that promoted the petronium alternative energy development was begun. Six companies (Hitachi, Toshiba, NEC, Sharp, Matsushita, and the Toyo silicon) 
http://www.cm.hit-u.ac.jp/kyouiku/mcm/thesis/shimamt1.html
1975 Japan Japan Solar Energy Company Sharp proposed the FEG process to Agency of Industrial Science and Technology with Kyocera that was licensed from Tyco labs. Their proposals were rejected. Sharp, Kyocera, Matsushita, Mobile (U.S.), and Tyco Labs(U.S.) established "Japan solar energy company (JSEC)" for developing FEG process. www.meti.go.jp/policy/tech_evaluation/ e00/01/h12/h1303i29-1.
http://www.kyocera.co.jp/prdct/solar/spirit/history/75-81.html
http://www.kyocera.co.jp/prdct/fc/htdocs/library/17.html 
USA Terrestrial PV R&D Project, 1975: The U.S. government began a terrestrial PV research and development project, assigned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), as a result of recommendations of the Cherry Hill Conference.  @
1976 USA Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell  D.E. Carlson and C.R. Wronski reported the fabrication of a amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cell with a conversion efficiency of 2.4%  D.E. Carlson and C.R. Wronski, Appl. Phys. Letters, 28,11,1976
197X Japan The First Solar Car in Japan Prof. Masaharu Fujita and his research group had begun to study Solar Electric Vehicle after Oil Crisis. Their first vehicle was a solar bicycle. The second car was a four-wheeled vehicle. Masaharu Fujinaka," Earth friendly Solar Car (High Tech Selection)", Tokyo Denki University Publications Service,1991.03.30,(in Japanese)
1977 USA SERI USA, The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), later to become the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), began operating. http://www.nrel.gov
USA The First Solar Car
 (vol.3)
The first, totally solar-powered car, the "Bluebird," was built by Ed Passerini, in 1977 http://www.cw.ua.edu/vnews/display.v/ART/2002/04/29/3cccbf3a6e706
1978 World The Second Oil Crisis Iranian Revolution in 1978. The oil production in Iran interrupted, and oil supply was stringent to Japan that had bought a large amount of crude oil from Iran. The crude oil price was raised up again.  @
Japan Sunshine Program include Amorphous  The development of the amorphous silicon solar cell was included in the Sunshine Program.
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1979 UK The First Solar Car
 (vol.4)
Alan Freeman constructed a solar car in 1979. And he road registered his solar car in 1980. http://www.speedace.info/alan_freeman_solar_car.htm
http://www.bvs.org.uk/text.HTML
1980 Japan NEDO NEDO (New Energy Development Organization) was established. The research on the oil alternative energy use that contain the solar cell was promoted.
http://www.nedo.go.jp/english/index.html
Japan Commercial Production of Amorphous Solar Cells The world's first commercial production of amorphous silicon solar cells by Sanyo Electric. http://www.sanyo.co.jp/clean/solar/hit_e/index_e.html
Israel The First Solar Car (Israel) Professor Arye Braunstein iTel Aviv university Department of Engineering) produced a solar car. The vehicle had a metal frame and poly vinyl made body, and 432 solar cells (max 400w) were nstalled.  http://www.motherearthnews.com/library/1980_September_October/Israel_s_Solar_Powered_Car
1982 Japan Polysilicon Solar Cells Kyopcera@Corp. began the mass production of polysilicon solar cells.  http://www.kyocera.co.jp/prdct/solar/spirit/history/82-86.html
Australia Trans-Continental Touring
by the Solar Car
In December 19, Hans Tholstrup and Larry Perkins started on a historical trans-continental touring.
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